[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Current Issue :: Search :: Submit an Article ::
:: Volume 2, Issue 2 (Spring 2021) ::
J Clinic Care Skill 2021, 2(2): 83-86 Back to browse issues page
Relationship of Serum Lipid Profiles and Serotonin with Major Depression: A Matched Case-Control Study
N. Hashemi Mohammad-Abad1, L. Hoseiniyan1, J. Malekzadeh *2
1- Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
2- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
Abstract:   (110 Views)
Aims: Depression is a common mental disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum lipid profiles and serum serotonin with depressive disorder.
Materials & Methods: This study was carried out on patients with depressive disorders referred to Shahid Mofteh Clinic in Yasuj, Iran, in 2016. The total serum cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and serum serotonin of 45 patients with the depressive disorder as a case group and 45 normal people without depressive disorder as a control group was measured. Age, sex, weight, and height were matched in both groups. Diagnosis of depression was conducted using both the Beck and Hamilton depression rating scale, followed by an interview by a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software by sample t-test and the chi-square test.
Findings: The LDL-C serum concentrations of the case group was higher than the control group (121.1±30.9 vs107.9±36.9; p=0.07); moreover, the HDL-C serum of the case group was significantly lower than the control group (52.6±11.9 vs. 34.4±9; p<0.0001). The Serum serotonin of the case group was higher than the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (455.9±393 vs. 418.1±224.4; p=0.58). The total cholesterol and Triglyceride of the case group were higher than the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (178±37.8 vs. 191.2±47 and 127.4±56.2 vs. 148.5±88.4 respectively; p=0.14).
Conclusion: The serum HDL-C concentration of depressed patients is lower than normal people, and the serum LDL-C concentration of depressed patients is higher than normal people.
Keywords: Depression [MeSH], cholesterol [MeSH], Serotonin [MeSH], LDL-C [MeSH], HDL-C. [MeSH],
Full-Text [PDF 475 kb]   (21 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2020/01/29 | Accepted: 2021/04/5 | Published: 2021/05/25
* Corresponding Author Address: Department of Nutrition, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences. Yasuj, Iran
References
1. Kaelber CT, Moul DE. Epidemiology of depression. New York: Guilford Press; 1995. [link]
2. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, et al. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003;289(23):3095-105. [DOI:10.1001/jama.289.23.3095] [PMID]
3. Williams DR, Gonzalez HM, Neighbors H, Nesse R, Abelson JM, Sweetman J, et al. Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites: Results from the national survey of American life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(3):305-15. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.305] [PMID]
4. Boston PF, Dursun SM, Reveley MA. Cholesterol and mental disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;169(6):682-9. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.169.6.682] [PMID]
5. Partonen T, Haukka J, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Lonnqvist J. Association of low serum total cholesterol with major depression and suicide. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;175:259-62. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.175.3.259] [PMID]
6. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. [link]
7. Atmaca M, Kuloglu M, Tezcan E, Ustundag B. Serum leptin and cholesterol values in violent and non-violent suicide attempters. Psychiatry Res. 2008;158(1):87-91. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2003.05.002] [PMID]
8. Wagner CJ, Musenbichler C, Bohm L, Farber K, Fischer AI, Von Nippold F, et al. LDL cholesterol relates to depression, its severity, and the prospective course. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019;92:405-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.01.010] [PMID]
9. Brunner J, Bronisch T, Pfister H, Jacobi F, Hofler M, Wittchen HU. High cholesterol, triglycerides, and body-mass index in suicide attempters. Arch Suicide Res. 2006;10(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1080/13811110500318083] [PMID]
10. Tedders SH, Fokong KD, McKenzie LE, Wesley C, Yu L, Zhang J. Low cholesterol is associated with depression among U.S. household population. J Affect Disord. 2011;135(1):115-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2011.06.045] [PMID]
11. Almeida OP, Yeap BB, Hankey GJ, Golledge J, Flicker L. HDL cholesterol and the risk of depression over 5 years. Mol Psychiatry. 2014;19(6):637-8. [DOI:10.1038/mp.2013.113] [PMID]
12. Buoli M, Caldiroli L, Guenzani D, Carnevali GS, Cesari M, Turolo S, et al. Associations between cholesterol and fatty acid profile on the severity of depression in older persons with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2020;1051-2276(20):30233-8. [DOI:10.1053/j.jrn.2020.08.017] [PMID]
13. Vilibic M, Jukic V, Pandzic-Sakoman M, Bilic P, Milosevic M. Association between total serum cholesterol and depression, aggression, and suicidal ideations in war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A cross-sectional study. Croat Med J. 2014;55(5):520-9. [DOI:10.3325/cmj.2014.55.520] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Han KT, Kim SJ. Are serum cholesterol levels associated with cognitive impairment and depression in elderly individuals without dementia: A retrospective cohort study in South Korea. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2021;36(1):163-73. [DOI:10.1002/gps.5410] [PMID]
15. Chen CC, Huang TL. Association of serum lipid profiles with depressive and anxiety disorders in menopausal women. Chang Gung Med J. 2006;29(3):325-30. [link]
16. Deisenhammer EA, Kramer-Reinstadler K, Liensberger D, Kemmler G, Hinterhuber H, Fleischhacker WW. No evidence for an association between serum cholesterol and the course of depression and suicidality. Psychiatry Res. 2004;121(3):253-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2003.09.007] [PMID]
17. Cepeda MS, Kern DM, Blacketer C, Drevets WC. Low levels of cholesterol and the cholesterol type are not associated with depression: Results of a cross-sectional NHANES study. J Clin Lipidol. 2020;14(4):515-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2020.06.001] [PMID]
18. Almeida-Montes LG, Valles-Sanchez V, Moreno-Aguilar J, Chavez-Balderas RA, Garcia-Marin JA, Cortes Sotres JC, et al. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000;25(4):371-7. [link]
19. Terao T, Nakamura J, Yoshimura R, Ohmori O, Takahashi N, Kojima H, et al. Relationship between serum cholesterol levels and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced cortisol responses in healthy men and women. Psychiatry Res. 2000;96(2):167-73. [DOI:10.1016/S0165-1781(00)00197-9]
20. Shrivastava S, Pucadyil TJ, Paila YD, Ganguly S, Chattopadhyay A. Chronic cholesterol depletion using statin impairs the function and dynamics of human serotonin(1A) receptors. Biochemistry. 2010;49(26):5426-35. [DOI:10.1021/bi100276b] [PMID]
21. Machin D, Campbell MJ, Tan SB, Tan SH. Sample size tables for clinical studies. Hoboken: Wiley; 2009. [DOI:10.1002/9781444300710] [PMCID]
22. Ghassemzadeh H, Mojtabai R, Karamghadiri N, Ebrahimkhani N. Psychometric properties of a Persian‐language version of the Beck depression inventory‐second edition: BDI‐II‐Persian. Depress Anxiety. 2005;21(4):185-92. [DOI:10.1002/da.20070] [PMID]
23. Rashedi V, Rezaei M, Foroughan M, Delbari A. Validity and reliability of the depression in old age scale (DIA-S) in Iranian older adults. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2016;66:193-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2016.06.009] [PMID]
24. Beck AT, Steer RA, Carbin MG. Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev. 1988;8(1):77-100. [DOI:10.1016/0272-7358(88)90050-5]
25. Stefan-Dabson K, Mohammadkhani P. Psychometrics Characteristic of Beck Depression Inventory-II in Patients with major depressive disorder. Rehabilitation. 2007;8(29):80-6. [Persian] [link]
26. Sharp R. The Hamilton rating scale for depression. Occup Med. 2015;65(4):340. [DOI:10.1093/occmed/kqv043] [PMID]
27. Rahimi C. Application of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Iranian university students. Clin Psychol Person. 2014;12(1):173-88 [link]
28. Gharaei B, Mehryar M, Mehrabi F. Attribution style in patients with anxiety and depression comorbidity. Iran J Psychiatr Clin Psychol. 2000;5(4):99. [link]
29. Khalid A, Lal N, Trivedi JK, Dalal PK, Asthana OP, Srivastava JS, et al. Serum lipids: New biological markers in depression?. Indian J Psychiatry. 1998;40(3):217-23. [link]
30. Melin EO, Thulesius HO, Hillman M, Svensson R, Landin-Olsson M, Thunander M. Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: A cross sectional study. Lipids Health Dis. 2019;18(1):65. [DOI:10.1186/s12944-019-1009-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Olusi SO, Fido AA. Serum lipid concentrations in patients with major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40(11):1128-31. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(95)00599-4]
32. Kunugi H, Takei N, Aoki H, Nanko S. Low serum cholesterol in suicide attempters. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;41(2):196-200. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(95)00672-9]
33. Gupta R, Kumar Solanki R, Dubey V, Kumar Midha P, Pathak V. Association of lipid profile with depressive features in young hypertensives. J Pak Psychiatr Soc. 2008;5(2):101. [link]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hashemi Mohammad-Abad N, Hoseiniyan L, Malekzadeh J. Relationship of Serum Lipid Profiles and Serotonin with Major Depression: A Matched Case-Control Study. J Clinic Care Skill. 2021; 2 (2) :83-86
URL: http://jccs.yums.ac.ir/article-1-84-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 2, Issue 2 (Spring 2021) Back to browse issues page
مجله مهارت‌ها و مراقبت‌های بالینی Journal of Clinical Care and Skills

 
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4331